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References

Please note - this is not a medical site, nor do we intend to make any medical claims, but report on the usage of various ingredients in alternative and complimentary therapy - which should never be used instead of standard medical advise.

Statements on this site has not been evaluated by the US FDA or the SA MCC and no information contained on this site should be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

But adhering to the directives of the FTC, we have included various references to ingredients and their actions.

If in doubt regarding a medical condition please contact your medical practitioner.

We have used the following trials, articles and reviews to compile the information, and some studies may have been sited more than once as it was applicable to another application or functionality as well.

on this page:

 

Adaptogens

  • I. I. Brekhman, "What can oppose stress?" Adaptation and Adaptogens. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium:" Processes of Adaptation and Biological Active Substances" (May 1975). Vladivostok: Far East Scientific Center of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1977: 81.
  • I. I. Brekhman and I. V. Dardymov, "New Substances of Plant Origin which Increase Nonspecific Resistance" Annual Review of Pharmacology, 1969: v.9.
  • A. Panossian, G. Wikman and H. Wagner, "Plant adaptogens. New concepts on their mode of action." Phytomedicine, 6(4), 1-14, 1999.
  • Anisimov, M. M.; Fronert, E. B.; Froleva, G. M.; Suprunov, N. I.: Effect of glycosides of Eleuteroccocus senticosis on early embryogenesis of sea-urchin. Izy. Akad. Nauk SSSR Otd. Biol. Nauk, 4: 590–593, 1973.
  • Asaoka, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Yoshida, K.; Nishizuka, Y.: Protein kinase C, calcium and phospholipid degradation. TIBS. 17: 414–417, 1992.
  • Barnard, E. A.: Receptor classes and the transmitter-gated ion channels. TIBS 17: 368–274, 1992.
  • Bezdetko, G. N.; Brekhman, I. I.; Dardymov, I. V.; Zil’ber, M. L.; and Rogozkin, V. A.: Eleutherococcus glycosides effect on nuclear RNA polymerase activity in skeletal muscles and liver after physical strain“, J. Voprosy Med. Khimii, 19 (3): 245–248, 1973.
  • Bhattacharya, S. K.; Goel, R. K.; Kaur, R.; Ghosal S.: Antistress activity of Sitoindosides VII and VIII, New acylsterylblucosides from Withania somnifera. Phytotherapy research, 1 (1): 32–37, 1987.
  • Bowen, D. L.; Fauci, A. S.: Adrenal Corticosteroids. In: Inflammation. Basic principles and clinical correlates. Eds. J. I. Gallin, I. M. Goldstein, R. Snyderman. Raven Press, New York: 877–896, 1988.
  • Bredt, D. S.; Hwang, P. M.; Snyder, S. H.: Localization of nitric oxide synthase indicating a neural role for nitric oxide, Nature 347: 768–770, 1990.
  • Brekhman, I. I.: Eleuterococc, Nauka, Leningrad, 185 p., 1968 (rus.).
  • Brekhman, I. I.; Dardymov I. V.: New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 8: 419–430, 1968.
  • Cambronero, J. C.; Rivas, F. J.; Borrell, J.; Guaza, C.: Role of  arachidonic acid metabolism on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-release induced by interleukin-1 from superfused rat hipothalami. J. Neuroimmunol. 39: 57–66, (1992).
  • Cannon, W. B.: Stresses and strains of homeostasis. Am. J. Med. Sci. 89: 1–14, 1935.
  • Chevallier, A.: The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants., Dorling Kindersley, London/New York/Stuttgart/Moscow, 1996, 336 p.
  • Chrousos, G. P.; Gold, P. W.: The consept of stress system disorders: overview of behavioral and physical homeostasis. JAMA 267: 1244–1252, 1992.
  • Cockroft, S.: G-protein-regulated phospholipases C.D and A2 mediated signaling in neutrophils. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1113: 135–160, 1992.
  • Clark, J. D.; Lin, L.-L.; Kritz, R. W.; Ramesha, C. S.; Sultzman, L. A.; Lin, A. Y.; Milona, N.; Knopf, J. L.: A novel arachidonic acid selective cytosolic PLA2 contains a Ca+2- dependent translocation domain with homology to PKC and GAP. Cell 65: 1043–1051, 1991.
  • Dardimov, I. V.: Ginzeng, eleuterococc. On the mechanism of biological activity, Nauka, Moscow. 184 p, 1976.
  • Dardymov, I. V.; Brekhman, I. I.: The influence of antimycin D on the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, caused by Eleutherococcus glycosides and adrenal ectomy in rats, Materiali Itogovoj Naucknoy Sessii, VNIIFK, 1969.
  • Dardymov, I. V.; Bezdetko, G. N.; Brekhman I. I.: Incorporation of P32 into rat liver RNA under physical exercises and the effect of Eleutherococcus glycosides, Voprosy Med. Khimii, 18 (3): 267–269, 1972.
  • Dardymov, I. V.; Khasina, E. I.: The effect of Eleutherococcus glycosides on glucose uptake by rat diaphragm., In: Lek. Sredstva Dal’nego vostoka (Remedies of the Far East), The Institute of Biologically Active Substances of the USSR, Academy of Science, Vladivostok, Russia, 2: 52–55, 1972.
  • Dardymov, I. V.; Khasina E. I.: The effect of Ginseng and Eleutherococcus glycosides on hexokinase activity. In: Lek. Sredstva Dal’nego Vostoka (Remedies of the Far East), The Institute of Biologically Active Substances of the USSR, Academy of Science, Vladivostok, Russia, 2: 56–59, 1972.
  • Dardymov, I. V., Kirillov, O. I.: Mater XXII Nauk. Sesji, Khabarovsk Med. Inst., Khabarovsk, 1965.
  • Di Rosa, M.; Radomski, M.; Carnuccio, R.; Moncada, S.: Glucocorticoids inhibit the induction of nitric oxide synthase in macrophages. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 172: 1246–1252, 1990.
  • Durum, S. K., Schmidt, J. A., Opperheim, J. J.: Interleukin 1: an immunological perspective. Ann. Rev. Immunol 3: 263–287, 1985.
  • Elyakov, G. B.; Ovodov, Yu. S.: The glycosides of Araliaceae. Khimia Prirodnich Soedineniy (6): 697–709, 1972.
  • Evans, W. C.: Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. WB Saunders Coompany Ltd, London–Philadelphia–Toronto –Sydnay–Tokio. 1996, 612 p.
  • FDA, 1998, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Federal Register, April 29, 1998a, Anon.
  • Flower, R. J.: The lipocortines and their role in controlling defence reactions. In: Adv. Prostagl. Thrombox. Leukotr. Res., Raven Press, New York, 15: 201–203, (1985).
  • Foegh, M. L., Ramwell, P. W.: Physiological implications of products in the arachidonic acid cascade. In: Prostaglandins and related substances, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.: 13–19, (1983).
  • Friedman, E. M.; Irwin, M. R.: A role for CRH and the sympathetic immune system in stress-induced immunosuppression. in: Stress. Basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Eds. G. P. Chrousos, R. McCarty, K. Pacak, G. Cizza, E. Sternberg, P. W. Gold, R. Kventansky. Ann. NY Acad Sci. 771: 396–418, (1995).
  • Fulder, S.: The Drug that builds Russians, New Scientists, 21: pp. 83–84, 1980.
  • Ghosal, S.; Lal, J.; Srivatava, R.; Battacharya, R.; Upadhyay, S. N.; Jaiswal, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, U.: Anti-stress activity of Sitoindosides IX and X, New C-27-glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera Phytotherapy Res. 3 (5): 201–209, 1989.
  • Gold, P. W.; Goodwin, F.; Chrousos, G. P.: Clinical and biomedical manifestations of depression: relationship to theneurobiology of stress, Part 2. N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 413–420, 1988.
  • Goodwin, J. S.; Webb, D. R.: Regulation of immune response by prostaglandins. Clinical Dermatology and Immunopathology. 15: 106–122, 1980.
  • Hancke, J., Burgos, R.; Wikman, G.; Ewertz, E.; Ahumada, F.: Schizandra chinensis, a potential phytodrug for recovery of sport horses. Fitoterapia, 65 (2): 113–118, 1994.
  • Hancke, J.; Burgos, R.; Caceres, D.; Brunetti, F.; Durigon, A.; Wikman, G.: Reduction of serum hepatic transaminases and CPK in sport horses with poor performance treated with a standardized Schizandra chinensis fruit extract. Phytomedicine 3 (2): 237–240, 1996.
  • Helper, J.; Gilman, A.: G proteins, TIBS 17: 383–387, 1992. Hu, S. B.; Tannahill, L. A.; Lightman, S. L.: Interleukin-1 beta induces corticotropin releasing factor-41 release from cultured hypothalamic cells through proteinkinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways. J. Neuroimmunol.40: 49–55, (1992).
  • Ip, S. P.; Poom, M. K. T.; Wu, S. S.; Che, C. T.; Ng, K. H.; Kong, Y. C.; Ko, K. M.: Effect on Schisandrin B on hepatic glutathione antioxidant system in mice: protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity, Planta Medica., 61: 398 – 401, 1995.
  • Kopin, I. J.: Definitions of stress and sympathetic neuronal responses. In: Stress. Basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Eds. G. P. Chrousos, R. McCarty, K. Pacak, G. Cizza, E. Sternberg, P. W. Gold, R. Kventansky. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 771: 1–18, 1995.
  • Kochetkov, N, K.; Khorlin, A. Y.; and Chizhov, O. S.; Sheichenko, V. I.: Chemical investigation of Schizandra Chinensis. Communication 2. Structure of Schizandrin, Izvestiyia Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya 5: 850–856, 1962.
  • Kurkin, V. A.; Zapesochnaya, G. G.: The Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Properties of Plants of the Genus Rhodiola (A Review), Khim. Farm. Zh., 20 (10): 1231– 1244, 1986.
  • Lazarev, N. V.: Actual problems of the studies of the action of adaptogens, particularly preparations of Eleuterococcus. Symposium on Ginzeng and Eleuterococcus. In: XX meeting on investigations of Ginseng and other medicinal plants of Far East, DVFSO, Vladivostok, 7–14, 1962.
  • Leonova, E. V.; Rodionova, T. V.: Effect of Eleutherococcus on Dynamics of Changes in Nucleic Acid and Protein Content in the Brain under the Effect of Ischemia, Vestsi Akad Nauk USSR Ser Biyal., 1: 93–96, 1979.
  • Li, S. E.: Effect of Eleutherosides on height and mitotic activity of the regenerating mouse liver, Bull. of Exp. Biol. and Medicine, 67 (6): 103–105, 1969.
  • Liu, G. T.; Zhang, T. M.; Wang, B. E.; Wang, Y. W.: ”Protective action of seven natural phenolic compounds against peroxidative damage to biomembranes“, Biochemical Pharmacology 43 (2): 147–152, 1992.
  • Lu, H.; Liu, G. T.: Effect of dibenzo-cycloctene lignans isolated from fructus Schizandrae on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity, Chem. Biol. Interactions, 78: 77–84, 1991.
  • Lu, H.; and Liu, G. T.: Anti-oxidant activity of dibenzocyclooctene lignans isolated from Schizandraceae, Planta Medica 58: 311–313, 1992.
  • Lupandin, A. V.; Lapaev, I. I.: Schizandra, Khabarovskoje Knizhnoye Izdatelstvo, Khabarovsk, 1–89, 1981.
  • Lupandin, A. V.: The role of catecholaminergic synapses in the mechanism of adaptation formation under the action of polyphenolic adaptogens. Sechenov, Physiological J. of USSR 75 (8): 1082–1088, 1989.
  • Lupandin, A. V.: General mechanism of adaption of the organism under the effect of polyphenol adaptogens Advances in Physiological Sciences. 22 (1): 1–40, 1991.
  • Malenkov, A. G., Kolotygina, I. M.: Cell surface RNA – A possible molecular receptor of adaptogens, Biofizika, 29 (5): 814–815, 1984.
  • Malyshev, I.; Prodius, P. A.; Arkhipenko, Yu. V.; Wikman, G.; Meerson, F. Z.: A new approach to studying the mechanism of action and searching for criteria of adaptogen activity. Proc. from the 5th World Congress, International Society for Adaptive Medicine, Poster Communication Session (III), 1997.
  • Meerson, F.: Adaptation, Stress and Prophylax, Nauka, Moscow, 1981, 278 p. (russ.); Springer-Verlag, 1984.
  • McCann, S. M.; Lyson, K.; Karanth, S.; Gimeno, M.; Belova, N.; Kamat, A.; Rettori, V.: Mechanism of action of cytokines to induce the pattern of pituitary hormone secretion in infection. In: Stress. Basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Eds. G. P. Chrousos, R. McCarty, K. Pacak, G. Cizza, E. Sternberg, P. W. Gold, R. Kventansky. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 771: 626–639, 1995.
  • Moncada, S.; Higgs, A.: The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. New Engl. J. Med.: 2002–2012, 1993.
  • Munck, A.; Guyre, P. M.; Holbrook, N. J.: Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions. Endocrine Rev. 5: 25–44, 1984.
  • Nakazato, Y.; Simonson, M. S.; Herman, W. H.; Konieczkowski, M.; Sedor, J. R.: Interleukin 1 stimulates prostaglandin biosynthesis in serum-activated mesangial cells by induction of a non-pancreatic (type II) phospholipase A2. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 14119–14127, 1991.
  • Nörr, H.: Phytochemical and pharmacological Investigations of the Adaptogens: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Ocimum sanctum, Codonopsis pilosula, Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata, Ph. D. thesis, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians University, München, 228 p., 1993.
  • Ohgo, S.; Nakatsuru, K.; Ishikawa, E.; Matsukura. S.: Inteleukin- 1 (IL-1) stimulates the Release of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) from superfused rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal complexes (HNC) independently of the histaminergic mechanism. Brain Res. 558: 217–223, 1991.
  • Panossian, A.; Gabrielian, E.; Wagner, H.: Plant adaptogens II Bryonia as an adaptogen. Phytomedicine 4 (1): 83–97, 1997.
  • Panossian, A.; Oganessian, A.; Ambartsumian, M.; Gabrielian, E.; Wagner, H.; Wikman, G.: Effects of heavy physical exercise and adaptogens on nitric oxide content in human saliva, Phytomedicine 6 (1): 17–26, 1999.
  • Polukhina, N. N.; Kozlova, N. M.; Barenboim, G. M.; Chernitsky, E. A.: The effects of eleutheroside ”B” and a mixture of Eleutherococcus glycosides on glucose transport in erythrocytic membranes. New data on Eleutherococcus, Proc. of the 2nd Int’l Symposium on Eleutherococcus, Moscow, pp. 58–62, 1981.
  • Rand, M. J.: Nitrergic transmittion: nitric oxide as a media- Plant adaptogenes III 299 tor of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neuro-effector transmission. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 19: 147–169,1992.
  • Rola-Pleszczynski, M.; Lamaire, I.: Leukortienes augments interleukin-1 production by human monocytes. J. Immunol.  135: 3958–3961, 1985.
  • Ssaratikov, A. S.; Krasnov, E. E., Chnikina, L. A.; Duvidson, L. M.; Sotova, M. I.; Marina, T. F.; Nechoda, M. F.; Aksenova, R. A.; Tschrdinzeff, S. G.: Rhodiolozid, ein neues Glykosid aus Rhodiola rosea und seine pharmakologischen Eigenschaften. Pharmazie 23: 392–395, 1968.
  • Saratikov, A. S.; Adamchuk, L. V.; Salnik, B. J.: Influence of Pipradrol and Rhodiola preparations on some indices of nucleic, protein and energetic metabolisms in the muscles of rats under the conditions of exhausting exercise. Izv-Sib- Otd-Akad-Nauk-Sssr-Ser-Biol-Med-Nauk. 2: 76–83, 1971.
  • Selye, H.: Stress. Acta Medical Publisher. Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1950.
  • Sternberg, E. M.; Licinio, J.: Overview of neuroimmune stress interactions. In: Stress. Basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Eds. G. P. Chrousos, R. McCarty, K. Pacak, G. Cizza, E. Sternberg, P. W. Gold, R. Kventansky. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 771: 364–371, 1995.
  • Stratakis, C. A.; Chrousos, G. F.: Neuroendocrinology and Pathophysiology of the Stress System. In: Stress. Basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Eds. G. P. Chrousos, R. McCarty, K. Pacak, G. Cizza, E. Sternberg, P. W. Gold, R. Kventansky. Ann. NY Acad Sci. 771: 1–18, 1995.
  • Tache, Y.; Rivier, C. (Eds): Corticotropine-releasing factor and cytokines: role in the stress response. Hans Selye symposium on neuroendocrinology and stress. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 697: 1993.
  • Viru, A. A.: Hormonal mechanisms of adaptation and training. Nauka. Leningrad: 1981, 154 p.
  • Wagner, H.; Heur, Y. H.; Obermeier, A.; Tittel, G.; Bladt, S.: Die DC- and HPLC-Analyse der Eleutherococcus Droge, Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 44: 193–198, 1982. Wagner, H.; Nörr, H.; Winterhoff, H.: Plant adaptogens. Phytomedicine 1: 63–76, 1994.
  • Wang, J. P.; Raung, S. L.; Hsu, M. F.; Chen, C. C.: Inhibition by gomisin C (a lignan from Schizandra chinensis) of the respiratory burst of rat neutrophils, Br. J. Pharmacol., 113: 945–953, 1994.
  • Zapesochnaya, G. G.; Kurkin, V. A.: Glycosides of cinnamyl alcohol from the rhizomes, Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii (6): 723–727/685–688 (transl.), 1983.

Astaxanthin

  • Diabetes
    • Forefront (Summer/Fall) 2005, American Diabetes Association.
    • Naito Y., et al., (2005). Oral presentation at the International Carotenoid Conference, Scotland and Carotenoid Science Volume 9.
    • Naito Y., et al., (2004). Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by treatment with astaxanthin in diabetic db/db mice. BioFactors 20:49-59.
    • Nutritional Outlook April 2004. “Fighting Diabesity”.
    • HSR Health Supplement Retailer July 2004. “Fighting Diabetes the natural way.”
    • Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals June 2004. “The dietary solution to diabetes.”
    • Uchiyama K., et al., (2002). Astaxanthin Protects –cells against glucose toxicity in diabetic db/db mice. Redox Report 7(5):290-292.
  • Eye fatigue and eye health
    • Suzuki et al., (2006). Suppressive effects of astaxanthin against rat endotoxin-induced uveitis by inhibiting the NF-kB signaling pathway. Exp. Eye Res., 82:275-281. 
    • Nagaki et al., (2006). The supplementation effect of astaxanthin on accommodation and asthenopia. J. Clin. Therap. Med., 22(1):41-54. 
    • Miyawaki et al., (2005). Effects of astaxanthin on human blood rheology. J. Clin. Therap. Med., 21(4):421-429. 
    • Nitta et al. (2005). Effects of astaxanthin on accommodation and asthenopia – Dose finding study in healthy volunteers. J. Clin. Therap. Med., 21(6):637-650. 
    • Shiratori et al. (2005). Effect of astaxanthin on accommodation and asthenopia – Efficacy identification study in healthy volunteers. J. Clin. Therap. Med., 21(5):543-556. 
    • Takahashi & Kajita (2005). Effects of astaxanthin on accommodative recovery. J. Clin. Therap. Med., 21(4):431-436. 
    • Nagaki et al. (2005). The effects of astaxanthin on retinal capillary blood flow in normal volunteers. J. Clin. Therap. Med., 21(5):537-542. 
    • Nakamura et al. (2004). Changes in Visual Function Following Peroral Astaxanthin. Japan J. Clin. Opthal., 58(6):1051-1054. 
    • Ohgami et al., (2003). Effects of astaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci., 44(6):2694-2701. 
    • Nagaki Y., et al., (2002). Effects of astaxanthin on accommodation, critical flicker fusions, and pattern evoked potential in visual display terminal workers. J. Trad. Med., 19(5):170-173. 
    • Sawaki, K. et al. (2002) Sports performance benefits from taking natural astaxanthin characterized by visual activity and muscle fatigue improvements in humans. J. Clin. Ther. Med., 18(9):73-88.
  • Gastric health - reflux and ulcers
    • Kupcinskas et al., Efficacy of the antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori gastritis: a propective, randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled study. Eur. J. Gastroent and Hepat., (In Press). 
    • Wang et al., (2000). Astaxanthin-rich algal meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44(9):2452-7. Symposium. 
    • Lignell et al., (1999). 12th International Carotenoid Symposium, Cairns. The safety, tolerability and efficacy of the antioxidant Astaxanthin in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. 
    • Bennedsen et al., (1999). Treatment of H. pylori infected mice with antioxidant astaxanthin reduces gastric inflammation, bacterial load and modulates cytokine release by splenocytes. Immunol Lett. 70(3):185-9.
  • Hypertension
    • Hussein G., et al., 2006b. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid with Potential in Human Health and Nutrition. J. Nat. Prod. 69(3):443 – 449.
    • Hussein G., et al., 2006a. Antihypertensive potential and mechanism of action of astaxanthin: III. Antioxidant and histopathological effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29(4):684-688.
    • Hussein G., et al., 2005b. Antihypertensive potential and mechanism of action of astaxanthin II. Vascular reactivity and hemorheology in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28(6):967-971.
    • Hussein G., et al., 2005a. Antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin in experimental animals. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28(1):47-52.
    • Miyawaki H., et al., 2005. Effects of astaxanthin on human blood rheology. J. Clin. Thera. Med. 21(4):421-429.
    • Li W., et al., 2004. Alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin decrease macrophage infiltration, apoptosis and vulnerability in atheroma of hyperlipidaemic rabbits. J. Mol. Cell. Cardio. 37:969-978.
    • Kudo Y., et al., 2001. Effects of astaxanthin brain damages due to ischemia. Presented at the Annual Carotenoid Conference, 2001, Toyama.
  • Muscle endurance and muscle health
    • Aoi, W. et al. (2003) Astaxanthin limits exercise-induced skeletal and cardiac muscle damage in mice. Antioxid Redox Signal 5(1):139-144. 
    • Sawaki, K. et al. (2002) Sports performance benefits from taking natural astaxanthin characterized by visual activity and muscle fatigue improvements in humans. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicine 18(9):73-88. 
    • Malmsten, C. (1998) Dietary supplementation with astaxanthin rich algal meal improves muscle endurance – a double blind study on male students. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Unpublished). 
    • Lee et al., (2003) Astaxanthin Inhibits Nitric Oxide Production and Inflammatory Gene Expression by Suppressing I.B Kinase-dependent NF-.B Activation. Mol. Cells, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 97-105.
  • Skin health
    • www.skincancer.org/ 
    • www.skincancerfacts.org.uk/facts.asp
    • Yamashita, E., (2006), The Effects of a Dietary Supplement Containing Astaxanthin on Skin Condition. Carotenoid Science, 10:91-95.
    • Koura, S., (2005). Skin sensitization study of Astaxanthin in Guinea Pigs. Study No. 05035. New Drug Research Center Inc., Hokkaido Japan. Fuji Sponsored Study.
    • Lee, S.J. et al., (2003), Astaxanthin Inhibits Nitric Oxide Production and Inflammatory Gene Expression by Suppressing I. B Kinase-dependent NF-.B Activation. Molecules and Cells, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 97-105.
    • Arakane (2002), Superior Skin Protection via Astaxanthin. Carotenoid Science April 5:21-24.
    • Lyons, N.M., & O’Brien, N.M., et al., (2002), Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. Journal of Dermatological Science 30:73-84.
    • Yamashita, E., (2002), Cosmetic benefit of the supplement health food combined astaxanthin and tocotrienol on human skin. Food Style 21 6(6):112-117.
    • Seki, T., et al., (2001), Effects of astaxanthin from haematococcus pluvialis on human skin. Fragrance Journal 12:98-103.
    • Black, H. S., (1998), Radical Interception by carotenoids and effects on UV carcinogenesis. Nutrition Cancer 31(3):212-217.
    • O'Connor, I., & O'Brian, N., (1998), Modulation of UVA light induced oxidative stress by beta-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblasts. Journal of Dermatological Science 16:226-230.
    • Savoure, N., et al., (1995), Vitamin A status and metabolism of cutaneous polyamines in the hairless mouse after UV irradiation: action of beta-carotene and astaxanthin. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 65(2):79-86.
    • Yamashita, E., (1995), Suppression of post UVB hyperpigmentation by topical astaxanthin from krill. Fragrance Journal 14:180-185.
    • Miki, W., (1991), Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. Pure & Appl. Chem., 63(1):141-146.

Arginine

  • Lamm, M.D., Steven and Couzens, Gerald Secor, Younger at Last: The New World of Vitality Medicine (New York: 1997, Simon & Schuster), pages 62-64. ISBN 0-684-83438-3
  • Klatz, D.O., Ronald with Kahn, Carol, Grow Young with HGH (New York: 1997, HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.), pages 200, 201, 206, 304. ISBN 0-06-018682-8
  • Hendler, M.D., Ph.D., Sheldon Saul, The Doctor's Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia (New York: 1990, Fireside), pages 209-215. ISBN 0-671-66784-X
  • Quillin, Ph.D., R.D., Patrick, Healing Nutrients (New York: 1989, Vintage), pages 274, 368. ISBN 0-679-72187-8

Bioflavonoids

  • M. Calomme, et al., "Inhibition of Bacterial Mutagenesis by Citrus Flavonoids" Planta Med, 62(3), June 1996, p. 222-226.
  • A. Negre-Salvayre, et al., "Additional Antilipoperoxidant Activities of Alpha-tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid on Membrane-like Systems are Potentiated by Rutin," Pharmacology, 42(5), 1991, p. 262 - 272.

Biotin

  • L. G. Hochman, et al., "Brittle Nails: Response to Daily Biotin Supplementation," Cutis 51(4), April 1993, p. 303-305).

Chromium picolinate

  • R. A. Anderson, et al. "Chromium Supplementation of Human Subjects: Effects on Glucose, Insulin and Lipid Variables," Metabolism, 32 (9), September 1983, p. 894-899.
  • W. Mertz, et al., "Chromium in Human Nutrition: A Review," Journal of Nutrition, 123(4) April 1993, p.626-633.

Co-enzyme Q 10

  • K. Folkers and A. Wolaniuk, "Research on Coenzyme Q10 in Clinical Medicine and in Immunomodulation," Drug Exp Clin Res, 11(8), 1985, p. 539-545.

Echinacea

  • V. R. Bauer, et al., [Immunologic in Vivo and in Vitro Studies on Echinacea Extracts], Arzneimittelforschung, 38(2), February 1988, p. 276-281.

Enzymes

  • H. S. Mitchell, et al., "Nutrition in Health and Disease,"Lippincott, 1976, p.124-155

Essential phospholipids

  • Mitchell et al., Nutrition in Health and Disease, 1976, p. 135.

Ginger

  • British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BHP). 1996. Exeter, U.K.: British Herbal Medicine Association.

Gingko biloba

  • P. Koltringer, et al., [Hemorheologic Effect of Gingko Biloba Extract Egb 761. Dose-dependent Effect of Egb761 on Microcirculation and Viscoelasticity of Blood], Forstschr Med, 111(10) April 10, 1993, p.170-172.
  • Cohen, A.J. and B. Bartlik. 1998. Ginkgo Biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther 24(2):139–143. 
  • DeFeudis, F.V. 1998. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761): From Chemistry to the Clinic. Weisbaden, Germany: Ullstein Medical Verlagsgesellschaft. 
  • Ernst, E. 1996. [Ginkgo biloba in treatment of intermittent claudication. A systematic research based on controlled studies in the literature] [In German]. Fortschr Med 114(8):85–87. 
  • Ernst, E. and M.H. Pittler. 1999. Ginkgo biloba Dementia: A systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Clin Drug Invest 17(4):301–308.
  • Gobbato, S., A. Griffini, E. Lolla, F. Peterlongo. 1996. HPLC quantitative analysis of biflavones in Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts and their identification by thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fitoterapia 67(2):152–158.

Ginseng

  • E. A. Sotaniemi, et al., "Ginseng Therapy in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Patients," Diabetic Care, 18(10), October 1995, p. 1373 - 1375.
  • V. D. Petkov, et al., "Effects of Standardized Ginseng Extract on Learning, Memory and Capabilities," American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 15(1), 1987, p.19-29.
  • H. K. Choi, et al., "Clinical Efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng for Erectile Dysfunction," International Journal of Impotence Research, 7(3), September 1995, p.181-186.

Histidine

  • L. G. Ignarro, Endothelium-derived nitric oxide: Actions and Properties, FASEB Journal, January 1989, 3(1):31-6.)

Goldenseal

  • D. Sun, et al., "Berberine Sulfate Blocks Adherence of Streptococcus pyogens to Epithelial Cells, Fibronectin and Hexadeceane," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotheraphy, 32(9) September 1988, p. 1370 - 1374.

Gotu Kola

  • M. V. R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagarium, 120, 33-41, July 1969.
  • M. Weiner, Weiner's Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94 and C. Allegra et al., L'estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981)

Grape seed extract

  • Y. Rong, et al., "Pycnogenol Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from t-butyl Hydroperoxide Induced Oxidant Injury," Biotechnol Ther, 5(3-4), 1994 - 1995, p. 117 - 26.
  • Yamakoshi J, Otsuka F, Sano A, Tokutake S, Saito M, Kikuchi M, Kubota Y., Lightening effect on ultraviolet-induced pigmentation of guinea pig skin by oral administration of a proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds., Pigment Cell Res. 2003 Dec;16(6):629-38
  • Yamakoshi J, Sano A, Tokutake S, Saito M, Kikuchi M, Kubota Y, Kawachi Y, Otsuka F., Oral intake of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds improves chloasma., Phytother Res. 2004 Nov;18(11):895-9.
  • Ivanov V, Ivanova S, Roomi MW, Kalinovsky T, Niedzwiecki A, Rath M., Extracellular matrix-mediated control of aortic smooth muscle cell growth and migration by a combination of ascorbic acid, lysine, proline, and catechins., J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;50(5):541-7.
  • Lacroix S, Bouez C, Vidal S, Cenizo V, Reymermier C, Justin V, Vicanová J, Damour O., Supplementation with a complex of active nutrients improved dermal and epidermal characteristics in skin equivalents generated from fibroblasts from young or aged donors., Biogerontology. 2007 Apr;8(2):97-109.
  • Vicanova J, Bouez C, Lacroix S, Lindmark L, Damour O., Epidermal and dermal characteristics in skin equivalent after systemic and topical application of skin care ingredients., Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 May;1067:337-42.
  • Katiyar SK., Matrix metalloproteinases in cancer metastasis: molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by green tea polyphenols and grape seed proanthocyanidins., Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2006 Mar;6(1):17-24.
  • Maffei Facino R, Carini M, Aldini G, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Morelli R., Free radicals scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their capillary protective action., Arzneimittelforschung. 1994 May;44(5):592-601.
  • Corbé C, Boissin JP, Siou A., [Light vision and chorioretinal circulation. Study of the effect of procyanidolic oligomers (Endotelon)], J Fr Ophtalmol. 1988;11(5):453-60. [French]
  • Carini M, Aldini G, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Maffei Facino R., UVB-induced hemolysis of rat erythrocytes: protective effect of procyanidins from grape seeds., Life Sci. 2000 Sep 1;67(15):1799-814.
  • Carini M, Maffei Facino R, Aldini G, Callonii MT, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P., The protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids in micellar systems against UVB-induced photo-oxidation by procyanidins from Vitis vinifera L., and the protective synergy with vitamin E., Int J Cosmet Sci. 1998 Aug;20(4):203-15.

Green tea

  • B. L. Zhao, et al., "Scavenging Effects of Extracts of Green Tea and Natural Antioxidants on Active Oxygen Radicals", Cell Biophysics, 14(2), April 1989, p. 175-185.
  • S. Kono, et al., "Green Tea Consumption in Northern Kyushu, Japan" Prev Med, 21(4) July 1992, p. 526-531.
  • M. Serafini, et al., "In Vivo Antioxidant effect of Green and Black Tea in Man," European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 50(1) January 1996, p. 28 - 32.
  • K. Imai & K. Nakachi, "Cross Sectional Study of Effects of Drinking Green Tea on Cardiovascular and liver diseases," British Medical Journal, 310 (6981), March 18, 1995, p. 693 - 696.

Licorice

  • R. Pompei, et al., "Glycyrrhizic Acid Inhibits Virus Growth and Inactivates Virus Particles", Nature, 281 (5733), October 25, 1979, p.689-690 and Bradley, P.R. (ed.). 1992. British Herbal Compendium, Vol. 1. Bournemouth: British Herbal Medicine Association.

Muira Puama 

  • Anselmino, Elisabeth. “Ancestral sources of Muira-puama.” Ach. Pharm. 1933; 271: 296–314.
  • Brazilian Pharmacopeia. “Muira puama. Ptychopetalum olacoides.” Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1956.
  • British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. “Muira puama.” West York, England: British Herbal Medicine Association, 1983; 132–33.
  • Youngken, H. W. “Observations on Muira puama.” J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1921; 10: 690–92.
  • Olofsson, Eric. “Action of extract of Liriosma ovata on the blood pressure, vessels and respiration of the rabbit.” Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 1927; 97: 1639-40.
  • Gaebler, H. “Revival of the drug Muira puama.” Deut. Apoth. 1979; 22(3): 94–6.
  • Dias Da Silva, Rodolpho. “Medicinal plants of Brazil. Botanical and pharmacognostic studies. Muira puama.” Rev. Bras. Med. Pharm. 1925; 1(1): 37–41.
  • Iwasa, J., et al. “Constituents of Muira puama.” Yakungaka Zasshi (Japan) 1969; 89(8): 1172–74.
  • Auterhoff, H., et al. “Components of Muira puama.” Arch. Pharm. Ber. Dtsch. Pharm. Ges. 1968; 301(7): 481–89.
  • Auterhoff, H., et al. “Components of Muira puama II.” Arch. Pharm. Ber. Dtsch. Pharm. Ges. 1969; 302(3): 209–12.
  • Auterhoff, H., et al. “Lipophilic constituents of Muira puama.” Arch. Pharm. Ber. Dtsch. Pharm. Ges. 1971; 304(3): 223–28.
  • Steinmetz, E. “Muira puama.” Quart. J. Crude Drug Res. 1971; 11(3): 1787–89.
  • Ninomiya, Ruriko, et al. “Studies of Brazilian crude drugs.” Shoyakugaku Zasshi (Japan) 1979; 33(2): 57–64.
  • Bucek, E., et al. “Volatile constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides root oil.” Planta Med. 1989; 53(2): 231.
  • Penna, M. Notas Sobre Plantas Brasileriras. Rio de Janeiro: Araujo Penn & Cia., 1930, 258.
  • Waynberg, J. “Contributions to the clinical validation of the traditional use of Ptychopetalum guyanna.” Presented at the First International Congress on Ethnopharmacology, Strasbourg, France, June 5–9, 1990.
  • Waynberg, J. “Male sexual asthenia—interest in a traditional plant-derived medication.” Ethnopharmacology; 1995.
  • Hanawa., et al. “Composition containing an extract from Muira puama root and plant worm extract.” Taisho Pharmacuetical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, United States Patent No. 6024984, 2000.
  • Paiva, Laf, et al. “Effects of Ptychocepalum olacoides extract on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests.” Phytother. Res. 1998; 12(4): 294–96.
  • Siqueira, I. R., et al. “Psychopharamcological properties of Ptychopetalum olachoides Bentham (Olacaceae).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(5): 327–34.
  • Elisabetsky, E., et al. Propriedades Psicofarmacologicas de Oleaceas, IX Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, 1–3 September 1986, 32.
  • Asano, T., et al. “Oral compositions containing Muira purama for gastric mucosal lesions.” Japan Kokai Tokyo Hoho, Patent No. 11343244, 1999.
  • Vaz, Z. R., et al. “Analgesic effect of the herbal medicine Catuama in thermal and chemical models of nociception in mice.” Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(2): 101–6.
  • Cherksey, B. D. “Method of preparing Muira puama extract and its use for decreasing body fat percentage and increasing lean muscle mass.” United States Patent No. 5516516, 1996.
  • Forgacs, P., et al. “Phytochemical and biological activity studies on 18 plants from French Guyana.” Plant Med. Phytother. 1983; 17(1): 22–32.

Selenium

  • P. A. van den Brandt, et al., "A prospective Cohort Study of Selenium Status and the Risk of Lung Cancer" Cancer Research, 49 (11), June 1, 1989, p. 3020 - 3023.
  • M. Bonomini, et al., "Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Immune Parameters in Chronic Uraemic Patients on Haemodialysis," Neprol Dial Transplant, 10(9), 1995, p. 1654 - 1661.

Piperine from BioPerine ® piperine from bioperine

  1. Anand P, Thomas SG, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Sung B, Tharakan ST, Misra K, Priyadarsini IK, Rajasekharan KN, Aggarwal BB., Biological activities of curcumin and its analogues (Congeners) made by man and Mother Nature., Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Aug 19.
  2. Kulkarni SK, Bhutani MK, Bishnoi M., Antidepressant activity of curcumin: involvement of serotonin and dopamine system., Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Sep 3.
  3. Duessel S, Heuertz RM, Ezekiel UR., Growth inhibition of human colon cancer cells by plant compounds., Clin Lab Sci. 2008 Summer;21(3):151-7.
  4. Henning SM, Choo JJ, Heber D., Nongallated compared with gallated flavan-3-ols in green and black tea are more bioavailable., J Nutr. 2008 Aug;138(8):1529S-1534S.
  5. Wattanathorn J, Chonpathompikunlert P, Muchimapura S, Priprem A, Tankamnerdthai O., Piperine, the potential functional food for mood and cognitive disorders., Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Sep;46(9):3106-10.
  6. Bansal T, Awasthi A, Jaggi M, Khar RK, Talegaonkar S., Pre-clinical evidence for altered absorption and biliary excretion of irinotecan (CPT-11) in combination with quercetin: Possible contribution of P-glycoprotein., Life Sci. 2008 Aug 15;83(7-8):250-9.
  7. Song QF, Qu YC, Zheng HB, Zhang GH, Lin HG, Yang JL., [Differentiation of erythroleukemia K562 cells induced by piperine], Ai Zheng. 2008 Jun;27(6):571-4. [Chinese]
  8. Pathak N, Khandelwal S., Comparative efficacy of piperine, curcumin and picroliv against Cd immunotoxicity in mice., Biometals. 2008 Jun 20.
  9. Lee SA, Hwang JS, Han XH, Lee C, Lee MH, Choe SG, Hong SS, Lee D, Lee MK, Hwang BY., Methylpiperate derivatives from Piper longum and their inhibition of monoamine oxidase., Arch Pharm Res. 2008 Jun;31(6):679-83.
  10. Veerareddy PR, Vobalaboina V., Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of piperine lipid nanospheres., Pharmazie. 2008 May;63(5):352-5.
  11. Thota N, Koul S, Reddy MV, Sangwan PL, Khan IA, Kumar A, Raja AF, Andotra SS, Qazi GN., Citral derived amides as potent bacterial NorA efflux pump inhibitors., Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Jul 1;16(13):6535-43.
  12. Waje CK, Kim HK, Kim KS, Todoriki S, Kwon JH., Physicochemical and microbiological qualities of steamed and irradiated ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)., J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 25;56(12):4592-6.
  13. Matsuda D, Ohte S, Ohshiro T, Jiang W, Rudel L, Hong B, Si S, Tomoda H., Molecular target of piperine in the inhibition of lipid droplet accumulation in macrophages. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Jun;31(6):1063-6.
  14. Krchnák V, Waring KR, Noll BC, Moellmann U, Dahse HM, Miller MJ., Evolution of natural product scaffolds by acyl- and arylnitroso hetero-diels-alder reactions: new chemistry on piperine., J Org Chem. 2008 Jun 20;73(12):4559-67.
  15. Volak LP, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Court MH., Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase enzymes, whereas piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor., Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Aug;36(8):1594-605.
  16. Han Y, Chin Tan TM, Lim LY., In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Aug 1;230(3):283-9.
  17. Kanaki N, Dave M, Padh H, Rajani M., A rapid method for isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn., Nat Med (Tokyo). 2008 Jul;62(3):281-3.
  18. Martinelli A, Rodrigues LA, Cravo P., Plasmodium chabaudi: efficacy of artemisinin + curcumin combination treatment on a clone selected for artemisinin resistance in mice., Exp Parasitol. 2008 Jun;119(2):304-7.
  19. Friedman M, Levin CE, Lee SU, Lee JS, Ohnisi-Kameyama M, Kozukue N., Analysis by HPLC and LC/MS of pungent piperamides in commercial black, white, green, and red whole and ground peppercorns., J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 14;56(9):3028-36.
  20. Kumar A, Khan IA, Koul S, Koul JL, Taneja SC, Ali I, Ali F, Sharma S, Mirza ZM, Kumar M, Sangwan PL, Gupta P, Thota N, Qazi GN., Novel structural analogues of piperine as inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus., J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Jun;61(6):1270-6.
  21. Matsuda H, Ninomiya K, Morikawa T, Yasuda D, Yamaguchi I, Yoshikawa M., Protective effects of amide constituents from the fruit of Piper chaba on D-galactosamine/TNF-alpha-induced cell death in mouse hepatocytes., Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Mar 15;18(6):2038-42.
  22. Faas L, Venkatasamy R, Hider RC, Young AR, Soumyanath A., In vivo evaluation of piperine and synthetic analogues as potential treatments for vitiligo using a sparsely pigmented mouse model., Br J Dermatol. 2008 May;158(5):941-50.
  23. Wongpa S, Himakoun L, Soontornchai S, Temcharoen P., Antimutagenic effects of piperine on cyclophosphamide-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Oct-Dec;8(4):623-7.
  24. Zhao JQ, Du GZ, Xiong YC, Wen YF, Bhadauria M, Nirala SK., Attenuation of beryllium induced hepatorenal dysfunction and oxidative stress in rodents by combined effect of gallic acid and piperine., Arch Pharm Res. 2007 Dec;30(12):1575-83.
  25. Rodgers LF, Markle KL, Hennessey TM., Responses of the ciliates tetrahymena and paramecium to vertebrate odorants and tastants., J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008 Jan-Feb;55(1):27-33.
  26. da Silva Ferreira W, Freire-de-Lima L, Saraiva VB, Alisson-Silva F, Mendonça-Previato L, Previato JO, Echevarria A, de Lima ME., Novel 1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-phenylamine chlorides derived from natural piperine as trypanocidal agents: chemical and biological studies., Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Mar 15;16(6):2984-91.
  27. Freire-de-Lima L, Ribeiro TS, Rocha GM, Brandăo BA, Romeiro A, Mendonça-Previato L, Previato JO, de Lima ME, de Carvalho TM, Heise N., The toxic effects of piperine against Trypanosoma cruzi: ultrastructural alterations and reversible blockage of cytokinesis in epimastigote forms., Parasitol Res. 2008 Apr;102(5):1059-67.
  28. Scholz S, Williamson G., Interactions affecting the bioavailability of dietary polyphenols in vivo., Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 May;77(3):224-35.
  29. Hirata N, Tokunaga M, Naruto S, Iinuma M, Matsuda H., Testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory active constituents of Piper nigrum leaf., Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Dec;30(12):2402-5.
  30. Panossian A, Nikoyan N, Ohanyan N, Hovhannisyan A, Abrahamyan H, Gabrielyan E, Wikman G., Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats., Phytomedicine. 2008 Jan;15(1-2):84-91.
  31. Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB., Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises., Mol Pharm. 2007 Nov-Dec;4(6):807-18.
  32. Srinivasan K., Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects., Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(8):735-48.
  33. Kasibhatta R, Naidu MU., Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine under fasting conditions: a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study., Drugs R D. 2007;8(6):383-91.
  34. Simas NK, Lima Eda C, Kuster RM, Lage CL, de Oliveira Filho AM., Potential use of Piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae., Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2007 Jul-Aug;40(4):405-7.
  35. Gopu CL, Aher S, Mehta H, Paradkar AR, Mahadik KR., Simultaneous determination of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and piperine by HPTLC densitometric method., Phytochem Anal. 2008 Mar;19(2):116-21.
  36. Kumar S, Singhal V, Roshan R, Sharma A, Rembhotkar GW, Ghosh B., Piperine inhibits TNF-alpha induced adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial monolayer through suppression of NF-kappaB and IkappaB kinase activation., Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Dec 1;575(1-3):177-86.
  37. Pathak N, Khandelwal S., Cytoprotective and immunomodulating properties of piperine on murine splenocytes: an in vitro study., Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Dec 8;576(1-3):160-70.
  38. Barbieri E Jr, Barreto CB Jr, Ribeiro RC, de Oliveira VH, Freire de Lima ME, Moya-Borja GE., [Insecticide effects of natural amides from Piper and of the synthetic derivative tetrahydropiperine on Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)], Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2007 Apr-Jun;16(2):87-91. [Portuguese]
  39. Li S, Wang C, Li W, Koike K, Nikaido T, Wang MW., Antidepressant-like effects of piperine and its derivative, antiepilepsirine., J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2007 Apr-Aug;9(3-5):421-30.
  40. Park BS, Son DJ, Park YH, Kim TW, Lee SE., Antiplatelet effects of acidamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum L., Phytomedicine. 2007 Dec;14(12):853-5.
  41. Kozukue N, Park MS, Choi SH, Lee SU, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Levin CE, Friedman M., Kinetics of light-induced cis-trans isomerization of four piperines and their levels in ground black peppers as determined by HPLC and LC/MS., J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Aug 22;55(17):7131-9.
  42. B'Hymer C., Development of a residual solvent test for bulk alpha-phenyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-piperine methanol using headspace sampling., J Chromatogr Sci. 2007 Jul;45(6):293-7.
  43. Iwashita M, Saito M, Yamaguchi Y, Takagaki R, Nakahata N., Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Piper longum L. on rabbit platelet aggregation through antagonizing thromboxane A2 receptor., Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Jul;30(7):1221-5.
  44. Bezerra DP, de Castro FO, Alves AP, Pessoa C, de Moraes MO, Silveira ER, Lima MA, Elmiro FJ, de Alencar NM, Mesquita RO, Lima MW, Costa-Lotufo LV., In vitro and in vivo antitumor effect of 5-FU combined with piplartine and piperine., J Appl Toxicol. 2008 Mar;28(2):156-63.
  45. Suresh D, Srinivasan K., Studies on the in vitro absorption of spice principles--curcumin, capsaicin and piperine in rat intestines., Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Aug;45(8):1437-42.
  46. Suresh D, Srinivasan K., Influence of curcumin, capsaicin, and piperine on the rat liver drug-metabolizing enzyme system in vivo and in vitro., Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;84(12):1259-65.
  47. Lee SE, Park BS, Bayman P, Baker JL, Choi WS, Campbell BC., Suppression of ochratoxin biosynthesis by naturally occurring alkaloids., Food Addit Contam. 2007 Apr;24(4):391-7.
  48. Musenga A, Mandrioli R, Ferranti A, D'Orazio G, Fanali S, Raggi MA., Analysis of aromatic and terpenic constituents of pepper extracts by capillary electrochromatography., J Sep Sci. 2007 Mar;30(4):612-9.
  49. Lin Z, Liao Y, Venkatasamy R, Hider RC, Soumyanath A., Amides from Piper nigrum L. with dissimilar effects on melanocyte proliferation in-vitro., J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;59(4):529-36.
  50. Nirala SK, Bhadauria M, Mathur R, Mathur A., Influence of alpha-tocopherol, propolis and piperine on therapeutic potential of tiferron against beryllium induced toxic manifestations., J Appl Toxicol. 2008 Jan;28(1):44-54.
  51. Choi BM, Kim SM, Park TK, Li G, Hong SJ, Park R, Chung HT, Kim BR., Piperine protects cisplatin-induced apoptosis via heme oxygenase-1 induction in auditory cells., J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Sep;18(9):615-22.
  52. Das B, Kundu J, Bachar SC, Uddin MA, Kundu JK., Antitumor and antibacterial activity of ethylacetate extract of Ludwigia hyssopifolia linn and its active principle piperine., Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007 Apr;20(2):128-31.
  53. Suresh DV, Mahesha HG, Rao AG, Srinivasan K., Binding of bioactive phytochemical piperine with human serum albumin: a spectrofluorometric study., Biopolymers. 2007 Jul;86(4):265-75.
  54. Affeltranger MA, McBurney DH, Balaban CD., Temporal interactions between oral irritants: piperine, zingerone, and capsaicin., Chem Senses. 2007 Jun;32(5):455-62. Epub 2007 Mar 30.
  55. Soumyanath A, Venkatasamy R, Joshi M, Faas L, Adejuyigbe B, Drake AF, Hider RC, Young AR., UV irradiation affects melanocyte stimulatory activity and protein binding of piperine., Photochem Photobiol. 2006 Nov-Dec;82(6):1541-8.
  56. Matsuda H, Ochi M, Nagatomo A, Yoshikawa M., Effects of allyl isothiocyanate from horseradish on several experimental gastric lesions in rats., Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Apr 30;561(1-3):172-81.
  57. Li S, Wang C, Wang M, Li W, Matsumoto K, Tang Y., Antidepressant like effects of piperine in chronic mild stress treated mice and its possible mechanisms., Life Sci. 2007 Mar 20;80(15):1373-81.
  58. Nirala SK, Bhadauria M, Mathur R, Mathur A., Amelioration of beryllium induced alterations in hepatorenal biochemistry and ultramorphology by co-administration of tiferron and adjuvants., J Biomed Sci. 2007 May;14(3):331-45.
  59. Gevaert T, Vandepitte J, Hutchings G, Vriens J, Nilius B, De Ridder D., TRPV1 is involved in stretch-evoked contractile changes in the rat autonomous bladder model: a study with piperine, a new TRPV1 agonist., Neurourol Urodyn. 2007;26(3):440-50; discussion 451-3.
  60. Woo HM, Kang JH, Kawada T, Yoo H, Sung MK, Yu R., Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes., Life Sci. 2007 Feb 13;80(10):926-31.
  61. Sharma A.K, et al, Screening of anti-inflammatory activity of certain indigenous drugs on carrageenan-induced hind-paw oedema in Rats., Bull. Med, Etho. Bot. Res. 262-271, 1980
  62. Dahanukar S.A., Karadikar S M, Evaluation of anti-allergic activity of piper Longum, Indian Drugs, 377-383 June 1984
  63. Anand P, Thomas SG, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Sung B, Tharakan ST, Misra K, Priyadarsini IK, Rajasekharan KN, Aggarwal BB., Biological activities of curcumin and its analogues (Congeners) made by man and Mother Nature., Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Aug 19.
  64. Kulkarni SK, Bhutani MK, Bishnoi M., Antidepressant activity of curcumin: involvement of serotonin and dopamine system., Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Sep 3.
  65. Duessel S, Heuertz RM, Ezekiel UR., Growth inhibition of human colon cancer cells by plant compounds., Clin Lab Sci. 2008 Summer; 21(3):151-7.
  66. Henning SM, Choo JJ, Heber D., Nongallated compared with gallated flavan-3-ols in green and black tea are more bioavailable., J Nutr. 2008 Aug;138(8):1529S-1534S.
  67. Wattanathorn J, Chonpathompikunlert P, Muchimapura S, Priprem A, Tankamnerdthai O., Piperine, the potential functional food for mood and cognitive disorders., Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Sep;46(9):3106-10.
  68. Bansal T, Awasthi A, Jaggi M, Khar RK, Talegaonkar S., Pre-clinical evidence for altered absorption and biliary excretion of irinotecan (CPT-11) in combination with quercetin: possible contribution of P-glycoprotein., Life Sci. 2008 Aug 15;83(7-8):250-9.
  69. Song QF, Qu YC, Zheng HB, Zhang GH, Lin HG, Yang JL., [Differentiation of erythroleukemia K562 cells induced by piperine], Ai Zheng. 2008 Jun;27(6):571-4. [Chinese]
  70. Pathak N, Khandelwal S., Comparative efficacy of piperine, curcumin and picroliv against Cd immunotoxicity in mice., Biometals. 2008 Jun 20.
  71. Lee SA, Hwang JS, Han XH, Lee C, Lee MH, Choe SG, Hong SS, Lee D, Lee MK, Hwang BY., Methylpiperate derivatives from Piper longum and their inhibition of monoamine oxidase., Arch Pharm Res. 2008 Jun;31(6):679-83.
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  327. Pei YQ., A review of pharmacology and clinical use of piperine and its derivatives., Epilepsia. 1983 Apr;24(2):177-82.
  328. Micevych PE, Yaksh TL, Szolcsanyi J., Effect of intrathecal capsaicin analogues on the immunofluorescence of peptides and serotonin in the dorsal horn in rats., Neuroscience. 1983 Jan;8(1):123-31.
  329. Piyachaturawat P, Glinsukon T, Peugvicha P., Postcoital antifertility effect of piperine., Contraception. 1982 Dec;26(6):625-33.
  330. Atal CK, Zutshi U, Rao PG., Scientific evidence on the role of Ayurvedic herbals on bioavailability of drugs., J Ethnopharmacol. 1981 Sep;4(2):229-32.
  331. Pei YQ, Yue W, Cui JR, Yao HY., [A study of the central pharmacological action of piperine and its derivatives], Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1980 Apr;15(4):198-205. [Chinese]
  332. Dwuma-Badu D, Ayim JS, Dabra TT., Constituents of West African medicinal plants. XIV. Constituents of Piper guineense Schum, and Thonn., Lloydia. 1976 Jan-Feb;39(1):60-4.
  333. DiCecco JJ., Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of capsaicin., J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1976 Jan;59(1):1-4.
  334. Szolcsányi J, Jancsó-Gábor A., Sensory effects of capsaicin congeners. Part II: Importance of chemical structure and pungency in desensitizing activity of capsaicin-type compounds., Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(1):33-7.
  335. Jancsó-Gábor A, Szolcsányi J, Jancsó N., Irreversible impairment of thermoregulation induced by capsaicin and similar pungent substances in rats and guinea-pigs., J Physiol. 1970 Mar;206(3):495-507.
  336. Mikhailova L., [Morphological and functional changes in Bacillus anthracis under the effect of capsaicin and piperine. II. The effect of capsaicin and piperine on the biochemical properties and the bound amino acids of Bacillus anthracis], Izv Mikrobiol Inst (Sofiia). 1970;21:291-302. [Bulgarian]
  337. Mikhailova L., [Morphological and functional changes in Bacillus anthracis under the effect of capsaicin and piperine. I. Effect of capsaicin and piperine on the reproductive activity, morphological and cultural properties of Bacillus anthracis] Izv Mikrobiol Inst (Sofiia). 1970;21:277-89. [Bulgarian]
  338. Mihaďlova-Ivanova L., [Aboundant sporulation of Bacillus anthracis subjected to the effect of capsacain and piperine], Dokl Bulg Acad Nauk. 1967;20(6):577-9. [French]
  339. Graham HD., Quantitative determination of piperine with the Labat reagent., Nature. 1965 Jul 31;207(996):526-7.
  340. Graham HD., reaction of piperine with nitric acid. Adaptation to quantitative assay of the piperine content of pepper., J Pharm Sci. 1965 Feb;54:319-21.
  341. Hasselstrom T, Coles HW, Kennedy NE., Study of Irritants Related to Piperine., Science. 1952 Aug 22;116(3008):204-205.
  342.  

St John's Wort

  • In this meta-analysis involving 23 randomized studies, 15 of which were placebo-controlled, it was found that hypericum extract proved significantly effective in the treatment of patients suffering from moderate to mildly severe depression.
  • (K. Linde, et al., "St John's Wort for Depression - an Overview and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trails," British Medical Journal, 313 (7052), August 3, 1996, p.253-258.)
  • In this study, an SHS-174 preparation, a lyophized infusion from flowers of Sambucus nigra L., aerial parts of Hypericum performatum L., and roots of Saponaria officinalis (100g, 70g, 40g) exhibited an antiherpes simplex virus type 1 effect in vitro. The preparation contains flavonoids, triperpene, saponins, phenolic acids, tannins and polysaccharide which could be responsible for its antiviral properties.
  • J. Serkedjieva, et al., "Antiviral Activity of the Infusion (SHS-174) from Flowers of Sambucus Nigra L., Aerial Parts of Hypericum Perforatum, L, and Roots of Saponaria Offinalis L against Influenza and Herpes Simplex Viruses," Phytotherapy Research, 4(3), 1990, p.97-100.)
  • H. Muldner and M. Zoller, [Antidepressive Effect of a Hypericum Extract Standardized to an Active Hypericine Complex. Biochemical and Clinical Studies]Arzneimittelforschung, 34(8), 1984, p. 918-920.

Vitamin A

  • H. B. Stahelin, et al., "Beta-carotene and Cancer Prevention: The Basel Study." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53(1 Suppl), January 1991, p. 265S - 269S.
  • G. van Poppel, et al., "Effect of Beta-carotene on Immunological Indexes in Healthy Male Smokers" American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(3), March 1993, p.402-407.

Vitamin B1

  • M. Suzuki & Y. Itokawa, "Effects of Thiamine Supplementation on Exercised-induced Fatigue," Metabolic Pr Brain Dis, 11(1) March 1996, p.95-106.

Vitamin B5

  • H. S. Mitchell, et al. Nutrition in Health and Disease, Lippicott, 1976.

Vitamin B6

  • J. B. Deijen, et al., "Vitamin B-6 Supplementation in Elderly Men: Effects on Mood, Memory, Performance and Mental Effort," Psychopharmacology, 109(4), 1992, p. 489-496.

Vitamin B12

  • H. S. Mitchell, et al., "Nutrition in Health and Disease,"Lippincott, 1976, p.106-108.

Vitamin C

  • Vitamin C, Cancer and Aging, Age, 16, 1993, p. 55-58.
  • H. Hemila, "Does Vitamin C Alleviate the Symptoms of the Common Cold?" - A Review of Current Evidence," Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease, 26(1), 1994, p.1-6.)
  • C. L. Phillips, et al. "Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Proliferation and Collagen Synthesis in Relation to the Donor age of Human Dermal Fibroblast," Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 103(2), August 1994, p.228-232.
  • E. Cheraskin, et al., "Daily Vitamin C Consumption and Fatigability," Journal of American Geriatric Society, 24(3), 1976, p.136-137.
  • G. E. Hatch, "Asthma, Inhaled Oxidants and Dietary Antioxidants," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(3 suppl) March 1995, p. 625S - 630S.)
  • C.F. Phillips, et al., "Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Proliferation and Collagen Synthesis in Realtion to the Donor Age of Human Dermal Fibroblast," Journal of Invest Dermatol 103(2) August 1994, p. 228 - 232)
  • W. M. Ringsdorf, Jr and E Cheraskin, "Vitamin C and Human Wound Healing" Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 53(3), March 1982, p.231 - 236.
  • A. Negre-Salvayre, et al., "Additional Antilipoperoxidant Activities of Alpha-tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid on Membrane-like Systems are Potentiated by Rutin," Pharmacology, 42(5), 1991, p. 262 - 272.

Vitamin E

  • M. Passeri and D. Provvedini, [Vitamin E in Geriatric Physiopathology], Acta Vitaminol Enzymol, 5(1), 1983, p. 53-63.
  • F. Umeda, et al., "Effects of Vitamin E on Function of Pituitary-gonadal Axis in Male Rats and Human Subjects,"Endocrinal Jpn, 29(3), June 1982, p.287-292.
  • E. Kessopoulou, et al., " A double blind rnadomized placebo controlled cross-over controlled trial using antioxidant Vitamin E to treat oxygen species associated male infertility." Fertil Steril, 64(4), October 1995, p. 825-831.

Vitamin U

  • Cheney G (1954). "Vitamin U concentrate therapy of peptic ulcer". American Journal of Gastroenterology 21 (3): 230-250. PMID 13138563. 
  • Cheney G (1955). "The medical management of gastric ulcers with vitamin U therapy". Stanford Med Bull 13 (2): 204-214. PMID 14386172. 
  • Cheney G, Waxler SH, Miller IJ (1956). "Vitamin U therapy of peptic ulcer; experience at San Quentin Prison". Calif Med 84 (1): 39-42. PMID 13276831. 
  • Cheney G (1952). "Vitamin U Therapy of Peptic Ulcer". California Medicine 77 (4): 248-252. PMID 13009468. 
  • Cheney G (1955). "The medical management of gastric ulcers with vitamin U therapy". Stanford Med Bull 13 (2): 204-214. PMID 14386172. 
  • Cheney G (1950). "The nature of the antipepticulcer dietary factor". Stanford Med Bull 8 (3): 144-161. PMID 14782068. 
  • Cheney G (1950). "Antipeptic ulcer dietary factor". American Dietetics Association 26 (9).

Zinc

  • G. Michaelson, et al., "Effects of Oral Zinc and Vitamin A on Acne", Arch Dermatol, 113(1), January 1977, p.31-36.)
  • A. A. Caldamone, et al., "Seminal Zinc and Male Infertility", Urology, 13(3), March 1979, p.280-281.
  • H. Takihara, et al., "Zinc Sulfate Therapy for Infertile Male with or without Varicocelectomy," Urology, 29(6) June 1987, p. 638-641.)
 
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