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Immune boosting effect of resveratrol

The reduction of inflammatory processes in the body help the entire body to enhance its immune functions and to ward of a variety of illnesses and disease. When the body is "run down" and had been exposed to various stressors – that either being environmental or mental – it can negatively impact on the body’s immune system.

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Reduce inflammation and boosts immune system immune boosting properties of resveratrol

Resveratrol helps to reduce inflammation, and also acts in various ways to enhance the immune functions of the body.

In a test, resveratrol reduced inflammatory response in rat peritoneal leukocytes by inhibiting enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. These included the 5-lipoxygenase pathway evaluated by the rate of 5-HETE production (IC~ of 2.72 µM), and the cyclooxygenase pathway evaluated by HIlT and thromboxane B2 production (IC50 of 0.68 and 0.81 µM, respectively).

Leukotrienes immune boosting properties of resveratrol

Leukotrienes are powerful mediators of inflammatory reactions and are thought to be involved in the cellular processes that contribute to atherosclerosis.

The production of these leucotrienes are reduced by the introduction of resveratrol into the body, in human neutrophils by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and I5-lipoxygenase, the enzymes involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to Ieukotrienes (IC50 of 22.4 and 8.7 µM, respectively).

These effects were independent of the free radical scavenging effects (antioxidant effect) of resveratrol, since other more powerful antioxidants did not have the same effect.

Resveratrol was demonstrated to increase the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These are involved in a variety of inflammatory and immunological processes, such as release of histamine, leukotrienes, and lysosomal enzymes from the lungs and leukocytes.

Currently considered as biomarkers of inflammation are intracellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-l), vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1), E-Selectin, and P-Selectin. Many pathological conditions—such as inflammation and acute or chronic rejection—are found to be characterized by enhanced adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium.4’5

The ability of resveratrol to modify endothelial adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes was investigated by Dr. Ferrero and her collaborators.

Resveratrol inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human saphenous vein endothelial cells (HSVEC). In addition, resveratrol induced a significant inhibition in the adhesion of U937 monocytoid cells to lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HSVEC.4’5 Modification of such adhesion by resveratrol may support its use as an immunomodulating agent, as well as its potential role as an anti-inflammatory or anti-rejecting compound.

The cellular transcription factor, NF-kß (nuclear factor—kappa beta), mediates immune and inflammatory responses and regulates a diverse group of genes involved in cell proliferation, oncogenesis, and apoptosis.

The activation of these signal transduction pathways is regulated by protein tyrosine kinases, and the pathways have an important role in the regulation of transcription factors. More importantly, NF- kß is under the control of protein tyrosine kinases.

Considerable evidence indicates that, after cellular stimulation, NF-kß translocation as well as NF- kß dependent gene expression can be suppressed by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit cellular events associated with tumorigenesis and inflammatory response. Resveratrol treatment was also shown to block lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF- kß in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, resveratrol was shown to regulate NF- kß at the level of nuclear translocation.

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